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Natural Resources



Habitats in Bodrogköz

Bodrogköz is the largest, coherent, near-natural, floodplain area in Middle-Europe, of which importance is remarkable from every aspect. Its most undisturbed part is the Bodrog-floodplain with the Bodrogzug area.

From botanical-geography point of view, the Bodrogköz belongs to the pannonian territory's northern-great plain flora region. The area's list of protected, rare and unique species contains more than 50 taxons.

Local fauna is rich and diverse, besides several rare species, the area is home of 37 strictly protected and 177 protected animal species. The Bodrog-Tisza floodplain - it is a section of the Tokaj-Bodrogzug Protected Area - gained Ramsar protected status in 1989, as an internationally recognized wetland habitat of high importance.

Bodrog River

The most spectacular river curves and oxbows along the river are located between Szegilong and Bodrogkeresztúr. The characteristic natural habitats of the Bodrogköz are the reed communities, boggy areas, meadows, grasslands, alkaline areas, boggy forests and deciduous forests with numerous protected species (see Flora).

Karcsa River

The Kis-Karcsa river is a tributary stream of the Bodrog river on its left side, its total length is 31,5 km, from which only 5 km flows in Hungary's territory, the rest (26,5 km) is a borderline river between Slovakia and Hungary. The Nagy-Karcsa is more like a lake, its watershed's total area is 95,12 squarekilometers.

Latorca River

Latorca is the longest river on the Bodrog's watershed. Its total length from the source to its merge with the Ondava River is 188 km. On its 9,4th km the Laborc – its largest right-side tributary stream- flows into it.

Wetland habitats: floodplains, marshes, oxbows

Bodrogköz floodplains, marshes, oxbows

Oxbows and canals are home of exceptionl varieties of reed vegetations. Occasionally, in these plant communities, IUCN "Rare and endangered plant species" are present in great quantities. The abundance, wildness and beauty of this waterwold has fascinated and it still fascinates the visitors, especially those who roam the territory by foot or boat.


In the natural forest edges - rich in species - between the deep forests and open areas hundreds of shrub and tree species flourish, attracting wildlife of every kind. Along the edges of Oakley, beech forests Quaking aspen Populus tremuloides, Goat willow (Salix caprea) Wild apple grow, providing excellent habitats for rare plants and animals.

The presence of native tree species in the woodlands is important not only from conservationist, but also from forestry point of view. Ancient and dead trees with cavities are the most important biotopes for some species, and they are responsible for the overall health of the forest ecosystems.



The Zempléni-mountains are the easternmost section of the Northern Mountains Region. Among our volcanic mountains, this is the most diverse in base materials, from structural and rock formation points of view this is the most complex from all. The volcanic activity 14-15 million years ago was periodic, and during some periods it all happened – erupted - under the miocenic age ocean. In this process, different materials and surface formations came into existence, offering diverse mineral sources for various uses, such as: mill-stone industry, mining, construction material sector, ceramic and pottery productions etc.

Predominnt plant communities - which cover the area - are mostly forest plant communities. The northernmost part belongs to the Carpathian floral territory, while the largest section – middle part of the mountains - bears the characteristics of the Northern Mountains Region. In the southern areas we can find both the thermophile and drought resistant plant species which are representatives of the bordering sub-regions. The fauna of the mountains shows exceptional diversity as well, numerous protected and strictly protected species live in the area. Besides the Carpathian, mountaneous species, drought resistant steppe elements (plants, animals) exist here.

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