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Natural Resources

Fauna

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In the Zempléni-mountains molluscas such as snails (Gastropoda) and shells (Lamellibranchiata) are both found. The most spectacular representative of this class is the Keelback slug (Bielzia coerulans), which is endemic to the Carpathian mountains.

Among the spiders, remarkable species is the Ladybird spider (Eresus niger) which has gotten protected status only recently. There are many protected species amongst the beautiful dragonflies. The largest species in Hungary from the Ephemeroptera order is the Tisza mayfly (Palingenia longicauda), which still lives in the Bodrog River, its body length is 25–38 mm, hatch and mature in large numbers around the 20th of June, at the darkening of the day, the phenomenon also known as "Blooming of the Tisza River". From the 3600 domestic Lepidopteras species, there are many protected, from which 170 protected species live in the county. The longest Hungarian insect, the predatory Bush cricket (Saga pedo) enjoys the sunny, dry slopes in Tokaj-Hegyalja. This rare, rather Mediterranean orthoptera species can grow up to 10 cm in length, and it is not able to fly. Praying mantis (Mantis religiosa) can be found in autumn on the riverbanks. Predatory animals are the ground beetles, from which the highly endangered, endemic Zemplén ground beetle (Carabus zawadzkii), lives only in the Long-forest along the Bodrog River.

Fishes live not only in the river but in the marshes and oxbows along it. In 2004, 56 fish species were documented here.

Every single amphibian species protected in Hungary! The Fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) lives in the mountains along creeks, its flashing colour warns us of its poisonous skin. Alpine newt (Triturus alpestris) lives in cold springs, mostly found in beech-alder woodlands. Other newt species are the Smooth newt (Triturus vulgaris), and the Danube crested newt (Triturus dobrogicus) which both live in the Bodrogköz region. The largest domestic frog species is the Common toad (Bufo bufo) which lives in the ground, while the Edible frog (rana esculenta) croaks from lakes and marshes.

All reptile species are protected! Sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) is common everywhere, it is the largest lizard in Hungary. From the marshes of the Bodrogköz, there are numerous recordings about the existence of the Viviparous lizard (Zootoca vivipara), which is an ice-age relic species. The common viper (Vipera berus) likes moist, mountain meadows although it is rare, and stays away from humans. Only uses its venomous teeth when attacked, or stepped on it. It's been decades since adult, healthy human got killed by snake in the region. Common viper is often mistaken for the more common Smooth snake (Coronella austriaca), of which head holds a marking which is similar to that of on the Austrian symbol's two-headed eagle. The most widespread snake is the Grass snake (natrix natrix), which lives in oxbows of the Bodrog River. On the upper areas of the Bodrogköz, the one and only tortoise species of Hungary, the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis), is common.

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There are more than 150 bird species which was documented from this area. The Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) Great white egret (Casmerodius albus), Grey heron (Ardea cinerea), Bittern (Botaurus stellaris) are all common here. Two stork species live in the area:, the White stork (Ciconia ciconia) nests in villages, around humans, while the Wood stork (Ciconia nigra) lives deep in the forests. Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia) is rather rare wonderer. Mute swan (Cygnus olor) lives along the river in different places. Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) is common by the riverside. One of our strictly protected bird species is the very timid Corncrake (Crex crex), its largest population in Hungary can be found in the Bodrogköz region. Every woodpecker species are represented in the area. Tits, nuthatches, orioles live in great populations. There are 8 owl species in the Zempléni-mountains. Among birds of preys, the endangered Saker falcon (Falco cherrug), stays here all year long, they do not migrate. Among others, the following species can be seen: Honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus), Buzzard (Buteo buteo), Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), Marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus), Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), Hobby (Falco subbuteo).

There are protected mammal species, such as the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra), or the Fat dormouse (glis glis). Bats, Wild cats (Felis silvestris) Badger (Meles meles) and Pine martens (Martes martes) can be found.

Games are abundant in the mountains, such as Red deer (Cervus elaphus), Wild boar (Sus scrofa) and the Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

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